Climate change presents one of the greatest challenges of our time, and has become one of the defining issues of the twenty-first century. The radical changes which both developed and developing countries will need to make, in economic and in legal terms, to respond to climate change are unprecedented. International law, including treaty regimes, institutions, and customary international law, needs to address the myriad challenges and consequences of climate change, including variations in the weather patterns, sea level rise, and the resulting migration of peoples. This book provides an authoritative overview of all aspects of international climate change law as it currently stands, with guidance for how it should develop in the future. This book sets out to analyse the legal issues that surround this vitally important but still emerging area of international law. This book addresses the major legal dimensions of the problems caused by climate change: not only in the content and nature of the international legal frameworks, which need implementation at the national level, but also the development of carbon trading systems as a means of reducing the costs of meeting emission reduction targets. After an introduction to the field, the book assesses the relevant institutions, the key applicable principles of international law, the international mitigation regime and its consequences, and climate change litigation, before providing perspectives focused upon specific countries or regions.
Because of the importance of this issue, DFS has joined the Network of Central Banks and Supervisors for Greening the Financial System (NGFS), a group of central bankers and supervisors committed to managing financial risks from climate change globally, and the Sustainable Insurance Forum (SIF), an international network of insurance supervisors dedicated to helping the global insurance industry meet the challenges posed by climate change. DFS intends to continue engaging with all stakeholders to develop expert guidance in this critical area.
The webinar provided information to support insurers in implementing the expectations set forth in the Guidance. The insurers on the panel shared their experiences in integrating the consideration of the financial risks from climate change into their governance and organizational structure, and discussed how the structure influenced their management of climate-related risks and opportunities. The Geneva Association, an international think tank focused on strategically important insurance and risk management issues, provided a global perspective on the topic
This webinar provided support to help insurers understand and assess the data and tools needed to manage climate related risks and opportunities. The insurers on the panel shared information about climate data currently available in the market, their experiences selecting the right data and tools for their unique objectives, and views on how they assess their climate data needs throughout different phases of their climate risk journeys. The Principles for Responsible Investment, a United Nations-supported international network of investors, provided a global perspective on the topic.&
Environmental law is a complex body of law made up of global, international, national, state and local statutes, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seek to protect the environment affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. The most important issue at this moment is climate change. Countries have recognized that climate change presents an ever growing threat to development, poverty eradication efforts, security and the welfare of their citizens. Many political and military leaders around the world are now calling climate change the most serious threat to national security in the 21st century. Climate change has been called \"perhaps the world's most fearsome weapon of mass destruction\". From 30 November to 12 December, Paris hosted the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 11). On 12 December, the parties reached a new global agreement on climate change. The agreement presents a balanced outcome with an action plan to limit global warming 'well below' 2C.
The second edition of the Impact Evaluation in Practice handbook is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to impact evaluation for policymakers and development practitioners. First published in 2011, it has been used widely across the development and academic communities. The book incorporates real-world examples to present practical guidelines for designing and implementing impact evaluations. Readers will gain an understanding of impact evaluation and the best ways to use impact evaluations to design evidence-based policies and programs. The updated version covers the newest techniques for evaluating programs and includes state-of-the-art implementation advice, as well as an expanded set of examples and case studies that draw on recent development challenges. It also includes new material on research ethics and partnerships to conduct impact evaluation. The handbook is divided into four sections: Part One discusses what to evaluate and why; Part Two presents the main impact evaluation methods; Part Three addresses how to manage impact evaluations; Part Four reviews impact evaluation sampling and data collection. Case studies illustrate different applications of impact evaluations. The book links to complementary instructional material available online, including an applied case as well as questions and answers. The updated second edition will be a valuable resource for the international development community, universities, and policymakers looking to build better evidence around what works in development.
As such, Walmart will advocate for 1.5o C-aligned, science-based national and international climate policies that are consistent with achieving net-zero emissions by 2050 and fairly and equitably address the needs of all stakeholders. We believe market-based, emissions-reduction policies are critical to achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions necessary to eliminating the worst effects and mitigating the impacts of climate change while supporting economic growth.
For over eight decades, The United States Government Manual has been the\"official handbook\" of the Federal Government. This New Deal-era publication was published initially as a loose-leaf notebook, its pages held in place by three metal rings. The Government Manual is a regularlyupdated special edition of the FederalRegister. Its contents include leadership tables and descriptions of agency activities and programs of theexecutive, judicial, and legislative branches of Government, as well asactivities and programs of quasi-official agencies and international organizationsin which the United States participates as a member.
Carbon pricing can take different forms and shapes. In the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing series and on this website, carbon pricing refers to initiatives that put an explicit price on GHG emissions, i.e. a price expressed as a value per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). Considering different carbon pricing approaches, an emissions trading system (ETS), on the one hand, provides certainty about the environmental impact, but the price remains flexible. A carbon tax, on the one hand, guarantees the carbon price in the economic system against an uncertain environmental outcome. Other main types of carbon pricing offset mechanisms, results-based climate finance (RBCF) and internal carbon prices set by organizations. Scaling up GHG emission reductions and lowering the cost of mitigation is crucial to decarbonize economies. Given the size and urgency imposed by the climate challenge, a full range of carbon pricing approaches will be required, alongside other supporting policies and regulations.
Today, NOAA and partners released Implementing the Steps to Resilience: A Practitioner's Guide, a handbook for national climate resilience. The resource is designed to help climate adaptation practitioners work with local governments and community organizations to incorporate climate risk and equity into their long-term decision making.
The Forum noted the importance of the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), a major international climate summit being hosted by the UK in November 2021. It was agreed that the CFRF should explore ways that it can support the COP26 aims.
The SME Climate Hub has developed free, practical resources specifically tailored to support SMEs on their net zero journey through strategic emission reductions and opportunities for climate leadership. Businesses can calculate their emissions with the Business Carbon Calculator, learn how to take action with the Climate Fit education course and access support through the Financial Support guide and 1.5C Business Playbook.
Through its Human Resources policies, it is NATO's firm aim to maintain a work environment that is free from discrimination or harassment, providing equality of opportunity regardless of sex, race or ethnic origin, religion, nationality, disability, age or sexual orientation. Without setting quotas, NATO tries to ensure that its workforce reflects the diverse cultures and backgrounds of the nations it serves while maintaining an appropriate gender balance. The objective is an organization that flourishes in the natural diversity of its international employees.
John Knox is an internationally recognized expert on human rights law and international environmental law. From 2012 to 2015, he served as the first United Nations Independent Expert, and from 2015 to 2018, as its first Special Rapporteur, on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment. In t